Another area in which Wal-Mart had a significant impact on supermarkets after the 2001 recession was in labor negotiations, observers explained. The unionized chains began to deal more aggressively with the unions to achieve a more level playing field by cutting in-store costs and forcing showdowns like the 2003-2004 strike-lockout in California. According to Wolf, the unions helped create the situation in which supermarkets found themselves “because they completely failed to ...

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